The Exeter full-back raced in for try number 25 in trademark style, starting and finishing the move in the 26th minute, on his 88th appearance for Scotland.
The historic landmark was not lost on the 29-year-old, who leapt into the air with his fist raised in front of the south stand.
Hogg had drawn level with former Scotland players Ian Smith and Tony Stanger as joint-top try-scorer with two touchdowns in last week’s 30-15 defeat by South Africa, but now holds the record outright.
Smith’s 24 tries came in only 32 Scotland appearances between 1924-33, while fellow winger Stanger scored his tries across 52 Test matches from 1989-99.
Hogg’s record-breaking try typified his ability to create something out of nothing from deep with electrifying pace.
He followed up his offload to Chris Harris after his initial break to glide on to the end of a scintillating passage of play from the Scots.
Former Scotland skipper Rory Lawson, working as a pundit for Amazon Prime for the game, said: “Made and finished by Stuart Hogg. The timing and tempo of that was just phenomenal, Scotland in full flow there.”
Lawson added: “Hogg is an icon of Scottish Rugby. It’s so good to see him play with a smile on his face and don’t get me wrong, he’s still got so much more to give in a Scottish jersey.”
Hogg made his senior Scotland debut as a substitute in a 27-13 defeat by Wales in Cardiff during the 2012 Six Nations and scored his first international try in the following match, which ended in defeat at Murrayfield by the same score.
He began playing rugby at Hawick – his father John is also a former player at his local club – and turned professional with Glasgow Warriors in 2010.
Hogg was a stand-out performer throughout his rise up the Scotland ranks, representing his country at under-17, under-18 and under-20 levels before making his breakthrough at senior level.
He has been selected for three tours with the British and Irish Lions, heading to Australia in 2013, New Zealand in 2017 – during which he returned home early through injury – and playing for the full 80 minutes in the first and second Tests during the tour of South Africa earlier this year.